Common SSH Commands - Linux Shell Commands
Navigating in Linux/Unix
pwd Shows the full path of the current directory ls Lists all the files in the current directory ls -al Lists all files and information ls -alR Lists all files and information in all sub directories ls -alR | more Same as ls -alR, pausing when the screen becomes full ls -alR > filename.txt Same as ls -alR, outputs the results to a file ls *.html Lists all files that end with the .html extension cd [directory name] Changes to a new directory cd .. Changes to the directory above the current one clear Clears the screen vdir Gives you a more detailed listing than the 'ls' command exit Log off your shell
Moving, Copying and Deleting Files
mv [old filename] [new filename] Move/rename a file cp [filename] [new filename] Copy a file rm [filename] Delete a file rm * Delete all files in the current directory rm *.html Delete all files in the current directory with the .html extension rm -rf [directory name] Delete an entire directory, including every file in the directory (be very careful with this command!) mkdir [directory name] Create a new directory ls -d */ List all directories within the current directory cp -r [directory] [new directory] Copy a directory and all files/directories within it
Searching for Files and Directories
find . -name [filename] -print Search for a file starting with the current directory grep [text] [filename] Search for text within a file locate [filename] Search for a file in all directories (Requires mlocate to be installed)
File and Directory Permissions
There are three levels of file permissions: read, write and execute. In addition, there are three groups to which you can assign permissions: file owner, user group and everyone. The command chmod followed by three numbers is used to change permissions. The first number is the permission for the owner, the second for the group and the third for everyone. Here are how the levels of permissions translate:
0 = --- No permission 1 = --X Execute only 2 = -W- Write only 3 = -WX Write and execute 4 = R-- Read only 5 = R-X Read and execute 6 = RW- Read and write 7 = RWX Read, write and execute
It's recommended that the group always has a permission of 0. This prevents other users on the server from browsing files via Telnet/SSH/FTP.
Here are the most common file permissions used:
chmod 604 [filename] Minimum permissions for an HTML file chmod 705 [directory name] Minimum permissions for a directory chmod 755 [filename] Minimum permissions for scripts and applications chmod 606 [filename] Permissions for data files used by scripts chmod 703 [directory name] Write-only permissions for public FTP uploading
How do I unzip/untar a file via SSH?
unzip filename.zip Unzip a .zip file tar -xvf filename.tar Untar a .tar file gzip -d filename.gz Unzip a .gz file
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